Light Bulb & Lighting FAQ
General Light Bulbs & Lighting FAQ:
The halogen light bulb or light is a type of incandescent lamp which utilizes a halogen gas in order to enhance both light output as well as rated life. They are known for high performance, high quality of light, and also high rated life compared to normal incandescent lamps. Halogen light bulbs last much longer than incandescents, so they are a prominent selection for anybody trying to find low maintenance lights.
Fluorescent lighting depends on a chemical reaction inside of a glass tube to create light. This chemical reaction involves gases and mercury vapor interacting, which produces an invisible UV light. That invisible UV light illuminates the phosphor powder coating the inside of the glass tube, emitting white "fluorescent" light.
Neon lights are a type of cool cathode gas-discharge light. A neon tube is a sealed glass tube with a metal electrode at each end, filled with one of a number of gases at low pressure. A high potential of several thousand volts related to the electrodes ionizes the gas in television, triggering it to give off colored light.
Ultraviolet (UV) light has much shorter wavelengths than visible light.
UV radiation is the part of the EM spectrum in between X-rays as well as noticeable light.
This electromagnetic radiation is not noticeable to the human eye, because it has a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than the light our mind views as images.
Prior to LEDs, there were compact fluorescent lamps, or CFLs for short. CFLs are fluorescent lights that release light from a mix of phosphors inside the light bulb, and were designed to change incandescent lights (a lamp that produces light as an outcome of being warmed). When contrasted to an incandescent bulb creating the same quantity of light, CFLs make use of one-fifth to one-third the electrical power, and last eight to fifteen times longer. Like all fluorescent lights, CFLs consist of harmful mercury, which complicates their disposal. In lots of nations, governments have actually established reusing schemes for CFLs.
LED stands for light-emitting diodes.
LEDs are semiconductor diodes, electronic gadgets that allow flow in just one direction.
A mix of red, green, and also blue LEDs are typically made to make white light. LEDs release light in a certain direction, minimizing the need for reflectors and also diffusers that can catch light. This feature makes LEDs more reliable for many uses such as recessed downlights and also job lighting. With other sorts of lighting, the light should be reflected to the desired direction and also more than half of the light may never leave the component. LEDs give off extremely little heat. In comparison, incandescent bulbs launch 90% of their power as heat and CFLs release about 80% of their energy as warmth.
Organic LEDs create light by using two electrodes and a semi-conductor. The major difference originates from the use of organic products in OLEDs. In conventional LEDs blue LEDs are coated with yellow phosphor to produce light; nevertheless, OLEDs utilize slim layers of organic compounds to give off light through electric currents.
High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a kind of electrical gas-discharge lamp which creates light by means of an electrical arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a clear or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.
Types of HID
A MH (Metal Halide) lamp works when an electrical arc goes through a gaseous mix, developing light.
They are usually used in situations where color making is critical, such as interior or nighttime sports game lights and automotive headlamps.
Due to the fact that the surrounding temperature level truly has no effect on exactly how an MH light operates, it can be made use of both inside and outside, making it really versatile. MH bulbs have longer lamp life, lots of color, and are energy efficient.
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) bulbs are commonly utilized in street lamps. The mix of metals and gasses inside the glass tube creates an orange-white light commonly seen in street lights. HPS bulbs are much more energy-efficient than various other HIDs; nonetheless, they have a low color rendition and give off yellow light. They are usually used in position where color perception is not critical to conserve money on energy costs.
Mercury Vapor (MV) bulbs emit a clear white light and have a long light bulb life. They are typically used for large location overhead lights, such as in factories, warehouses sporting arenas, as well as in streetlights. MV lamps are progressively becoming phased out because of the higher effectiveness and far better color equilibrium of MH lamps.
Light bulb shape designations have two components made up of letters as well as a number. The letters describe the light bulb type while the number is an indicator of the actual dimension where a higher number represents a bigger bulb dimension.
Kelvin is a unit of measurement used to define the tone of a specific light. This is not always pertaining to the heat of the light source yet rather the color of the light output. The higher the Kelvin value of the light source, the closer the light's color output will be to actual sunshine. Color temperatures over 5000 K are called "cool colors" (bluish), while reduced shade temperatures (2700-- 3000 K) are called "warm colors" (yellowish).
Color temperature level (Correlated Color Temperature, or CCT) is essentially a scale of exactly how yellow or blue the shade of light is given off from a light bulb . It's gauged in Kelvin unit and is most typically in between 2200 Kelvin degrees as well as 6500 Kelvin degrees.
The beam angle of a light is the angle at which the light is emitted. The lighting industry has created a consistent formula to determine the beam angle. The light result (lumens) is determined at the center of the beam and afterwards light intensity is measured out from the center till it is 50% of the initial reading. The light beam angle is defined in degrees. The most common designations for flooding beam are Spot (7 to 15 degree), Flood (20 to 30 degrees) as well as Wide Flood (35 plus degrees).
The upgrade of a light and/or bulb that improves the lighting output and temperature of the light all while emitting less heat and saving energy. Retrofitting your facility means that you're adding something new that the structure did not previously have or was not part of the initial building and construction. When it comes to lighting, most retrofits that are taking place today are LED lighting retrofits.
A ballast manages the current to the lights and also offers enough voltage to start the lights. Lights have no regulatory authority and can draw too much or inadequate power on their own. The ballast ensures that the amount of current being provided to the light is not more than the spec of the light. Without a ballast, a light or a bulb will rapidly enhance its current and it can end up being uncontrollable.
When a ballast is present in a light, the power ends up being stable, and even if lights are linked to high power sources, the ballast will control the power as well as prevent the current surge.
IP (or "Ingress Protection") rankings are defined in international standards as IES 60529. In some cases interpreted as International Protection Code. They are used to specify levels of sealing efficiency of electric enclosures versus invasion from foreign bodies (tools, dust etc) and also moisture. The common aim is to give individuals more thorough information than vague marketing terms such as water resistant. It is published by the International Electrotechnical Compensation (IEC). An IP rating is usually a two-digit grading system that is put on a mechanical or electric device, giving clients a clear indicator of the device's resistance to different types of unwanted intrusion.
Efficient Projected Location (EPA). EPA is a coefficient used by the lighting industry to identify how much force a light will apply to the mounting brackets or pole at a given wind speed. This value is used in combination with the light's weight to identify the mounting needs for a specific application. By understanding the EPA's value for every light as well as their particular weight, the proper pole or mount can calculated and designed accordingly.
Solar energy has been identified as one of the most effective of all the inexhaustible and renewable energy sources. Outdoor solar lighting systems use solar cells, which convert sunlight into electricity. The electricity is stored in batteries for use at night. Manufacturers most commonly use nickel cadmium, sealed lead acid, and lead acid batteries.
Outdoor light bulbs are much more variable. Typically, they are interchangeable for indoor as well as outside use. In contrast, indoor lights are not made to endure outdoor temperature changes. There are 2 primary differences between interior and outdoor lighting options. Outdoor lights are normally constructed from non destructive products to take on all of the harsh elements they will likely encounter. They are also sealed much better as a result of the likely water they will be in contact with, whether it be rainfall or snow. Aside from that, the light bulbs and also electric structure are all the same of both interior as well as outside light fixtures. When bringing an outdoor light in, you will certainly want to take into consideration the voltage being utilized. Outside or landscape lights are typically 12 volts as well as are hooked up to a 12-volt source. Your interior plugs are set up to work with the 120-volt system. Which suggests when you connect an outside light into an inside resource, the lightbulb is most likely to go out quickly. Make sure the voltages match before setting up.
One more point to think about is the chemicals utilized to protect the light. Often manufacturers will cover a structure in a safety chemical layer to help it hold up against some outdoor elements. If used inside it could cause harm to those living indoors.
Common Electrical Lighting Questions:
Voltage, provided by a power source such as a battery, is what causes current to move. Voltage is the pressure from an electric circuit's power source that pushes charged electrons (current) via a conducting loop. Voltage = pressure, and is measured in volts (V).
The forward voltage is the amount of voltage required to get current to stream across a diode. Forward Voltage is the 'negative voltage', used by the LED when it's on.
In direct current (DC), the electric charge only moves in one direction. Electric charge in alternating current (A/C), on the other hand, changes direction regularly. A/C is capable of changing directions and voltage from higher to lower with the help of transformers.
A 0-10V control applies a voltage in between 0 and 10 volts DC to create a differing intensity levels. The other 0-10V control technique was developed for, as well as is utilized as, a standard methods for regulating fluorescent dimming ballasts. It is preferred for some drivers utilized for LED lights.
An electrical conduit refers to durable tubes and give a route for individual electrical wires. Electrical conduits may be made of steel, plastic, fiber, or discharged clay. The majority of conduits are stiff, yet flexible conduits are used of for some specific purposes.
An LED driver is a self contained power supply which controls the power needed for an LED or range of LEDs. The light releasing diodes are reduced power, lighting devices with a long life expectancy and low power consumption, hence the need for specialized power products. LED's require a LED driver to manage the electrical current. They often look similar to a fluorescent ballast but are available in all shapes and sizes. Without the proper LED light driver the LEDs would become hot and unstable resulting in failure and poor efficiency. To ensure the LEDs work flawlessly the self contained LED driver is required to supply a continuous amount power to the LED.
They are usually described as dimmer switches. By utilizing the ability of a transformer to change the voltage going through a circuit, a light can be made brighter or dimmer. All transformers are sized to a rating of Volt-Amps. VA (Volt-Amps) indicates your power supply/transformer need.
There are 2 various designs of transformers to select from, either remote or surface mount transformers. Transformers can be broken down into 2 types: magnetic or digital transformers.
Light Fixtures & Mounts:
Different light bulbs typically require different mounting types.
Pendant mounts are fixtures that hang from the ceiling and are suspended by a device, whether that be a pipe, conduit, metal pole, cable or chain. These kinds of lighting components allow light to be directed right below the light source.
Early on, chain mounts were used to ease the tension on electric cords. Their visual appeals have actually transitioned them into contemporary fixtures providing a much more commercial appearance.
Wall-mounted lights are installed straight to a wall surface. This kind includes sconces, diffuses, and also vanity lights. They can be used for most lighting techniques, especially ambient, indirect, task, and also unique functions.
Ceiling lights can be divided into two groups: flush mounted and semi-flush mounted. A flush installed light fixture does not have a space in between the fixture itself and the ceiling. A semi-flush mounted lighting fixture, nonetheless, has a small space between the lighting fixture as well as the ceiling. Semi-flush lights are comparable to pendant lights, yet they do not hang as low as pendant lights. These 2 kinds of ceiling mounts are excellent for places with low ceilings as they use up little room.
Lots of lighting fixtures, specifically high electrical power fixtures used to light sports fields as well as highways, are placed on steel poles.
A trunnion is a cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting or pivoting point. It is one of the best and strongest mounting systems available as it is a single gimbal mount and therefore self aligning in one axis.
When using lighting fixtures with a yoke mount, these tenon mounts allow for basic mounting to conventional sized tenons.
Slip fitter is for a rounded light pole tenon mounting bracket for a single light fixture. The Slip Fit Mount or Slipfitter LED Parking lot light is one of the most popular since it is one of the most flexible mounts. It can be utilized in a variety of ways.
Post Top mount:
Post top mounts are the crowning function of any kind of outdoor landscape or streetscape. When included in a park or walkway, post top lights light up landscape components as well as improve safety and security by giving an uniform ambient light that boost visibility for pedestrians. Post top lights can boost an overall outside design. Post top lights are ideal for streetscapes, parks, green rooms, schools, as well as public areas.
The ballast factor is the fraction of the light that will be given off from a light when making use of that certain ballast. A ballast's ballast factor can range from 0.70 to 1.20.
Low ballast factor ballasts use less power than normal or high ballast factor ballasts, hence they may be used where lower energy costs are the goal of a lighting retrofit.
DOB, Driver on Board, or Driverless, commonly described as eliminating the light, however, it doesn't indicate a LED has no source of light, it's simply a new drive setting that varies from the traditional Power IC. An LED driver is a self contained power supply which regulates the power needed for an LED or selection of LEDs. The light emitting diodes are low energy, lighting devices with a lengthy life-span and also low energy consumption, thus the demand for specialized power supplies.
ELV dimmers are typically very compatible with LED loads, using smoother dimming to reduced degrees. 0-10V: 0-10V dimming is frequently utilized for commercial fluorescent as well as LED installments as well as is among the simplest and earliest industrial dimming techniques.
Light Bulb & Lamp Performance Questions:
An Incandescent bulb has a small filament inside the bulb. This filament is actualy experiencing a small vibration from the current running through it. The small vibration is what you are actually hearing as a 'hum'
With age, your light bulb may experience flickering. Flickering can come from a number of reasons. Often times it can be a result from a faulty LED Driver, a bad connection (receptical or wiring), improper voltage, or a power surge
For fluorescent lighting (the most common lighting with a ballast), the current is what is regulated by the ballast providing an ample amount of voltage to power the light
Both Temperature and Humidity can affect a light bulb's performance. Heat is a notorious killer of lighting a lighting is a generator of heat (either emitting heat or building as a junction temperature)
Indoor and Outdoor lighting primairly differ in terms of how the lights are enclosed. Typically with an outdoor light you have an IP rating and the fixtures are sealed and gasketed.
Dimming issues with LEDs happen because of the small amount of power used in general with the LED. Some dimming systems with LEDs as you get down to the lower dim settings, the light will shut off. Therefore, the dimming range is more like 60-90% with an LED vs. a Halogen or Incandescent which has a dimming range of 100%. Because of this reason, some Manufacturers have opted to call their 0-10v Dimmable LEDs "1-10v" LEDs as many LEDs do not dim completely down to 0.
You may need a special dimmer for your LEDs. There are two types of dimming, Line Voltage and 0-10v Dimming. Most LEDs use 0-10v Dimming. It is best to check the Specification Sheet from the Manufacturer to verify the compatibility of the Dimmer with the specific product.